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Research

  • Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

    Year: 1998

    Author: Piero Azzoni, Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti, Giorgio Rizzoni

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    Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module.
    Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
    In this paper we present two methods to estimate the instantaneous indicated torque, combustion by combustion, and the vehicle load torque; we also present some preliminary results. The first method is based on the reconstruction of the in-cylinder pressure based on the measured engine block vibration. The second one exploits a nonlinear estimation technique, in which the difference between the instantaneous measurement of crankshaft angular velocity and an estimate of the same velocity, based on a model of the engine, forms the input to a sliding-mode observer.
    Experimental results of both methods have been obtained in an engine test cell on a two-cylinder compression-ignition.

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  • Misfire Pattern Recognition in High Performance SI 12-Cylinder Engine

    Year: 1998

    Author: Davide Moro, Piero Azzoni, Giorgio Minelli

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    This paper presents an original procedure for misfire detection in a high-performance 12-cylinder engine, based on the analysis of the time periods between subsequent combustions. A detailed analysis of the misfire effects on the engine crank-shaft instantaneous speed is presented, then a misfire detection procedure is designed, based on the misfire pattern recognition. The capability of this methodology was then validated under the worst case condition of a random misfire in several tests performed with the vehicle running on a circular race-track, at low and high load, in different gear, under acceleration and during a normal urban cycle. The results obtained are very interesting because the misfire pattern recognition works well even during cut-off or gear shifts, avoiding false alarm due to the strong influence that these phenomena have on crank-shaft dynamics. In conclusion same considerations have been done about the procedure capability of detecting more than one misfire within the same cycle.

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  • Reconstruction of Formula 1 Engine Instantaneous Speed by Acoustic Emission Analysis

    Year: 1998

    Author: P. Azzoni, D. Moro, G. Rizzoni

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    This paper presents some results of a method aimed at extracting instantaneous engine speed information from acoustic emission measurements obtained from Formula 1 (F1) vehicles during a race. The results presented in the paper show that it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous engine speed for an entire race, if desired, from available sound intensity measurements.
    The analysis method used in this work is applied to acoustic emission data recorded by the microphone of the in-car cameras mounted on F1 vehicles. The data analyzed in this paper were acquired during the 1998 Grand Prix of San Marino (Imola), and pertain to the performance of the Ferrari and McLaren-Mercedes vehicles. At the time of writing the paper, these are the two teams challenging one another for the driver and constructor championships. The analysis presented in the paper is based on data acquired in three different sections of the Imola circuit: the starting straightaway and two curves, to highlight the capabilities of the method.
    The result of the analysis demonstrates that it is possible to estimate a number of useful variables from sound measurements. These estimates are related to engine performance (e.g.: engine speed and its acceleration, top engine speed), to engine architecture (e.g.: gear ratios), to driving strategy (e.g.: shifting strategy) and to vehicle performance (tire adhesion, aerodynamic behavior).

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